Xavier Ateneo bids farewell to XUGS Macasandig

June 1, 2021

The Xavier Ateneo community has bid farewell to the XUGS Macasandig campus.  Tributes and prayers were offered to the past and present faculty, staff, administrators, Jesuits, parents, guardians, and pupils of the XUGS Macasandig on May 28. “For 50 years, this campus has been the home of the XU Grade School, particularly that of the Macasandig community,” said Dr Dulce Dawang, Xavier Ateneo VP for Basic Education, in her welcome remarks. “An important chapter of the XU Grade School is coming to an end,” she said, “however, there is also a whole new chapter that awaits it.” “Our track record shows that Xavier has filled us with so much confidence that we can readily take on any challenge. The GS community is indeed a great model of magis, grit, and resilience,” she added. Memories and prayers Five stations were set up around the XUGS campus, each dedicated to a particular group. “XUGS Macasandig would not have reached Level 3 PAASCU Accreditation without the dedication, commitment, and perseverance of all the teachers it had throughout its 50 years of tireless service to our young learners,”  said Nico Calunia, assistant principal for Academics and XUGS alumnus, during his sharing at the first station dedicated to the members of the faculty and staff. “As we close this campus' gates, let us remember all the memories we have shared with these grounds,” he said. “XUGS Macasandig has been a trailblazer in its time and we, the teachers and staff, will continue its legacy as we move to our new home.” XU Grade School started operations in 1941, but was transferred to Macasandig from the Corrales campus in 1970. In honor of the past and present school administrators, Teacher Hilda Gumanit recounted her experiences under different GS leaderships. “Let us not forget the wisdom and spiritual guidance of Fr Leo Pabayo SJ and all other chaplains and Jesuits who inspired us and prompted us to always find God in all things,” Gumanit said. “All these were lessons and legacies from our administrators together with their key and middle-level team, which will forever be carved in our hearts and minds.” The event also paid an homage to the Jesuits who led the XUGS Macasandig: Fr Theodore Daigler SJ (founder), Fr Jorge “George” Hofileña SJ, Fr Leo Pabayo SJ, Fr Bob Suchan, SJ and lay leaders, past principals Flerida Neri, Fatima Paepke, Emmanuel Gomez, Eva Auxilio, and their lay colleagues for the past 50 years. Messages for the pupils and parents XUGS Guidance Counselor Jenny Ugat shared at the third station her heartfelt message to the alumni and current pupils of the grade school. “As your educators and second parents, it is our joy to see our young Ateneans do spontaneous gestures of kindness, doing something good even when no one is watching or even when not being told to,” she said. “This makes us feel fulfilled that you have inhibited our culture of being men and women for others.” A thousand paper cranes with hopeful messages, submitted by pupils, alumni, parents, faculty, and staff adorned the hallways. “This may be a goodbye, but we are hoping that our children will have a better and new educational environment [in the Pueblo campus],” said Atty Johanna Lawrence Adaza, PTA President of XUGS-Macasandig. “This move is toward the better and for the good of our children,” she added.   XUGS Chaplain Fr Frank Savadera SJ gave the final blessings to the Macasandig campus. “As we travel the roads together, may the good Lord hold us always in the palm of His hands,” Fr Frank said, quoting an Irish prayer. One in mind and heart A statue of St Francis Xavier from Macasandig was transferred to XUGS Pueblo, marking the start of the consolidation of the two campuses. St Francis Xavier, the university’s patron saint, lived “a life of many transitions” as he traveled to many foreign and unfamiliar shores carrying out the mission of the Society of Jesus. A Eucharistic celebration capped the program, along with the symbolic transfer of XUGS memorabilia, such as the mace, PAASCU certificates, and trophies. “For us, consolidation is not only a physical integration of two groups of grade school communities.” Fr Mars Tan SJ, University President, said during his homily. “But more importantly, it is about being one in mind and heart as a grade school community, being inflamed by one Xavier Ateneo vision and mission, sustained by the same Ignatian values and ideals, and bonded together by the same love for our students and pupils.” The #OneXUGS project forms part of the strategic plan of the university, in line with its educational mission and vision of “becoming a leading ASEAN university forming leaders of character by 2033.” The consolidated XUGS is now integrated into the XU Basic Education Complex in Pueblo, along with the Preschool, Junior High, and Senior High School.

Morphing Art into Fashion with Laguindingan Silk

June 1, 2021

As Cagayan de Oro transitions into MECQ status in response to a surge in covid-19 infections, one of the city’s leading artists is optimizing the time available to him as he works from home. “Five years ago, I made a customized minaudière for a good friend. I did not expect to gain attention from the fashion industry since I'm producing home accessories,” said Christopher L. Gomez, one of Cagayan de Oro’s senior Kagay-anon designer who’s a multi-disciplinary creative and advocate of Sustainable Design. “Today, I reinvent again to produce in a limited-edition, hand-painted minaudières  made of Laguindingan Silk,” Chris reveals. “ As an artist, I want my product to produce in a limited way. So there will only be 43 pieces of these made-to-order, customized fashionable pieces which are proudly made in Cagayan de Oro, Mindanao.” A minaudière is a women's fashion accessory, generally considered a jewelry piece, which stands in for an evening bag. A case with compartments, it allows several items such as a makeup compact, lipstick, watch, reading glasses, or keys to be stored in a small space. Usually metal plated and oblong, sized small enough to be held within the hand, a minaudière is a dainty accessory. Gomez’s creations are textile designs with Laguindingan Silk overlaying a frame with hand painted designs. “Each piece is hand-painted and hand-crafted using traditional materials abundant in the region,” Gomez said. “The clutch is made of shell clasp thoroughly manipulated to achieve a greener tone.” According to fashion journalist Lloyd Boston, a minaudière constitutes an essential part of an evening wardrobe, a small object with no limit to its usefulness, and a fabulous character. The minaudière appeared during the 1930s. Its invention is attributed to Charles Arpels (of Van Cleef & Arpels), but many jewelers and haute couture designers have created their own models, like what Chris Gomez is doing. The word minaudière was a French term for a coquettish woman, from the word "minauder" (to flirt or simper). As a Product Development Mentor accredited by the Philippine Center for Entrepreneurship, and a Product Design Specialist of  Design Center Philippines (DCP), Chris has been a mentor to Kagay-anon designers eyeing to break the glass ceiling that has constrained them from attaining their full potential to breach the event horizon and define a Kagay-anon Design Paradigm instantly recognizable anywhere in the world. Among his many laurels: Finalist, 2011 National Philippine Art Awards; Grand Prize winner (water-based category) 2012 Metrobank Art & Design Excellence Awards; Finalist, 2014 Look of Style Awards (British Council/Look Magazine); and Finalist, 3rd Habi Kadayawan Design Competition held August 2019 at Davao City. As one of the spark plugs of Design de Oro, composed of graduates from two previous design workshops which aimed to build their capability through trainings with designers, Chris has sought to keep local designers updated  with trends, techniques, manipulation, up to the prices of saleable products. More recently, his design class modules were adopted by the Department of Trade and Industry’s (DTI) One Town, One Product (OTOP) through the MODA (Modernong Obra, Desinyung Atin) Designer Manlilikha course, a virtual online program conducted September-November 2020 which graduated 125 aspiring designers all over the Philippines. Featuring eight design leaders in their respective design fields from fashion. furniture to packaging and visual merchandising, MODA Manlilikha aimed at growing the capability and creativity of regional designers. “As a program director, I want to level up the growing capacity of our designers to understand better design solutions and marketable products to be executed by our micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs),” Chris said. “This program is supported by DTI Secretary Ramon Lopez, DTI Undersecretary Blessila Lantayona, and OTOP Assistant Secretary Demphna Du-Naga.” The second phase of the program will be launched in August and will start in September with design mentors from Manila, Cebu and Cagayan de Oro. “Our 125 graduates will undergo a specialized program that best suits their design interests. We are finalizing the lists of mentors because we want our young designers to be better equipped with skills and design thinking.” Not the least, as one of the most sought-after designers not only in the region but from all over the country as well, Chris considers his work as the connection between his art and his family. “My art also serves as fulcrum between a day job and my family. It connects the two in a very organic way, a sort of translation device.” “For me, design is always answering the question “is this product good for my family?”  “Having three children today has better connected me to the child I was before, fearlessly and innocently drawing in between studies, chores and games.”

Running Organgs — the new Pinoy-made mobile game is taking the country by storm

May 23, 2021

A new fun and addicting mobile game for both Android and Apple users has come to town! If you were waiting for all of 2020 for a big vacation, you’ll surely love playing Running Organgs. The game is 100% Pinoy-made, conceptualized and developed by PurpleBug Inc., which is a local digital marketing company. Another one joining the roster of Philippines’ pride, indeed! Running Organgs is one of the most anticipated online games this 2021. The game aims to serve as not just an entertainment for people and to distract them from the setbacks brought by the COVID-19 crisis, but to also allow players to travel and recall the feeling of visiting the most famous tourist spots in the Philippines, all the while staying safe from the dangers of the COVID-19 virus. Apart from providing entertainment, the game also aims to provide education to players about self-care and health. The characters, hence, the name “Running Organgs” is inspired from the human organs. The following are the characters of the game:   • Brainstein (Brain): The one who holds the greatest understanding and wisdom among the members of the Running Organgs. His arch nemesis are illegal drugs • Amor (Heart): The fun and bubbly member of the Running Organgs. She wears her heart on her sleeve and loves to make friends. Her arch nemesis are the pictures of her ex-boyfriends. • Oliver (Liver): The cool, laid-back, and most stylish member of the Running Organgs. His arch nemesis are alcoholic beverages. • Lang-Lang and Leng-Leng (Lungs): Lang-Lang and Leng-Leng are twins. Lang-Lang is prim and proper, while Leng-Leng is a free-spirit. Their arch nemesis are cigarettes, vapes, and the COVID-19 virus. • Tammie (Stomach): The confident and bold member of the Running Organgs. She loves to eat to her heart’s content and knows how to have a good time! Her arch nemesis are poisonous substances.   As a simple platformer game, people of all ages can enjoy playing Running Organgs.. With the overall unique art style and fun characters, you will surely enjoy every passing moment with this cute gang! Watch out for updates! PurpleBug Inc. will be releasing new versions within the year with additional characters and Philippine tourist spots. So far, the game has already received positive feedback, most notably for its art style, characters, and concept. PurpleBug is a digital marketing agency in the Philippines that offers 360 degrees digital marketing solutions and online marketing services such as web design services and web development services. Aside from these web solutions, PurpleBug also caters to search engine optimization services, online advertising, social media management services, online PR media, application development services, and other digital marketing solutions for businesses. Be sure to try it out! Happy playing! Download Running Organgs through these links: Android: https://bit.ly/2W1wZr3 iOS: https://apple.co/3qGdPFj

Security in uncertain times: Coca-Cola’s Balik Pinas program gives opportunities for returning OFWs amid pandemic

May 1, 2021

Coca-Cola Beverages Philippines, Inc. (CCBPI), the bottling arm of Coca-Cola in the country, has committed to helping overseas Filipino workers (OFWs) via its Balik Pinas program—an initiative that provides repatriated OFWs due to COVID-19 with opportunities to start their own businesses.   Since the program’s expansion in 2020 as a direct response to the pandemic-wrought job crisis, CCBPI has received over 400 inquiries and has thus far assisted over 40 OFWs in becoming business owners who are now part of the Coca-Cola family as distributors or wholesalers.    “By providing livelihood opportunities, especially to those who suddenly found themselves without stable incomes and unable to provide for their families, Coca-Cola is staying true to its pledge to help revive the Philippine economy via job generation and to support Filipinos confronting adversities,” says Gareth McGeown, CEO and President of CCBPI.   CCBPI assists former OFWs in choosing a suitable business model for their area, helps in managing their cash flow and inventory, and sees to it that they are given proper guidance and training until they are prepared and fully equipped to operate on their own—all in all, a sustainable and profitable business founded on practical support from a global beverage brand.   The Company’s goal to assist Filipinos, and consequently revitalize the economy at such a critical time, has been steadily expanding in reach to transform more lives. Further illustrating the program’s success by bringing Coca-Cola to more communities, we follow these Balik Pinas Program pioneers wo have just rewritten the trajectories of their life stories with their inspiring journeys—Melody Carillo, Jo Mari Biara, and Glenn Dela Cerna.      Selfless motherhood rising above a reversal of fortunes   Returning OFW Melody Carillo with her daughter, proudly shows off Sam Yau Consumer Goods Wholesaling—the business she established in Brgy. Kalaisan, Kidapawan through the help of Coca-Cola’s Balik Pinas Program.   With her nine-month-old baby in tow, Melody Carillo returned to the Philippines from Hong Kong, following a series of devastations ranging from personal heartache to professional disappointment. She and her then-newborn were abandoned by the child’s father—and then the pandemic collided against the renewal of her contract as a domestic helper and nanny when her employers had to cut costs after losing their own jobs.   Melody’s story was marked by a reversal of fortunes, but she overcame her challenges with her perseverance and her strong will. Upon her unplanned homecoming in September 2020, Melody bravely confronted the need to support her small family. Her original plan to start her own business—the reason she left for Hong Kong in the first place—found footing in her hometown of Brgy. Kalaisan, Kidapawan.   Melody learned of Coca-Cola’s Balik Pinas program through Sales Associate Ariel Pocot, and the two discussed how the program could help her achieve her dream of becoming a business owner. At the tail-end of February 2021, Sum Yau Consumer Goods Wholesaling—named after Melody’s daughter—was successfully launched. In just under a month of operations, Sum Yau has bought and sold around 4,200 cases of Coca-Cola beverages.   Melody shares that she is “so happy and blessed” for having been given an opportunity to pursue a livelihood, no matter the personal obstacles she had to face. She credits the Coca-Cola South Davao Sales Team for guiding her through every step of the process, from the initial orientation to her first order and delivery, from establishing a servicing schedule to training her how to sell.     Avenues for altruistic service   Balik Pinas pioneer Jo Mari Baira with Coca-Cola Representatives led by Region Sales Manager Wendell Dayrit, in front of his store in the Municipality of Columbio, Sultan Kudarat. Joms was one of the recipients of OWWA’s Balik Bayani Award 2020.   Jo Mari Baira had been working in Saudi Arabia for nearly seven years as a payroll officer. He considers himself a passionate individual, with a big heart that was increasingly insisting on a life of service for his country—which is why Joms took the chance to return home to reunite with his family in Columbio, Sultan Kudarat and serve his local community.   A different opportunity for service, however, presented itself to Jo Mari upon his return to the Philippines through a friend who convinced him to team up with his sister to start a small business venture. According to Joms, thanks to Coca-Cola’s never-ending support, the business they started since returning home from Saudi has been fruitful since its first day of operations.   “Hindi nila [Coca-Cola] kami iniiwan, everyday open ang komunikasyon, consistent sila sa mga emails at check-ups o sa kamustahan. At natutuwa kami ngayon dahil hindi lamang nagbebenta sila sa amin pero nag-aasist sila palagi,” shares Joms. [Coca-Cola has never left us behind, communication lines were open every day, and they were consistent with their emails and with checking up on us. We’re happy that the relationship is not just based on selling; they are always present to assist us.]   Joms takes pride in the growth of their small business via the Balik Pinas program—an avenue to provide for his family and an opportunity to serve his community. He shares that he plans to expand his small business as a distributor and dealer, involve and engage the rest of the community, and serve as an inspiration to fellow OFWs.     Family at the heart of the business   Now a businessman thanks to the Balik Pinas Program, Glenn Dela Cerna gives a big thumbs up to celebrate the success of his store in Brgy Quezon, Surigao City. Glenn returned home to the Philippines after working for 15-years in Abu Dhabi. He was recognized by DOLE-OWWA during its Balik Bayani Awards 2020.   Another Balik Pinas program pioneer, Glenn Dela Cerna, spent almost 15 years as a construction worker and electrical foreman in Abu Dhabi—to provide for the needs and the welfare of his family back home in Surigao City. The pandemic, however, had him returning home and worrying about the cost of his children’s education given the loss of his long-standing livelihood.   A small business, one he can attend to in the immediate orbit of his family, was the route he took—and Glenn emerged as a businessman and wholesaler with the help of Balik Pinas. Glenn describes how helpful Coke has been, supporting him throughout the challenges of launching a business—which, in his case, involves servicing a more remote area.   “Nag start na kami at within 24 hours may na-deliver na sa amin na mga produkto. Mga 30 to 40 cases na agad, at nagbigay din sila ng cooler, stand, at lalagyan para sa products,” shares Glenn. [Within 24 hours of starting, we received the delivery of around 30 to 40 cases of Coke products. They also sent over a cooler, stands, and containers for products.]   Glenn and his family take pride in their business, particularly in building it from the ground up. Driven by his immense love for family and his determination to reach a more comfortable future, he shares that he would like to stay in the Philippines and further grow his business.      Coca-Cola standing in solidarity with Filipinos   The common thread winding their way through the stories of Balik Pinas pioneers is the drive to secure a better tomorrow for their family. This reflects Coca-Cola’s main goal for the program—to provide opportunities to Filipinos, especially those who have been severely affected by these challenging times, and help restart the local economy by providing individuals the possibility of starting their own livelihood.   According to the Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE), over 400,000 OFWs have been repatriated since January 2021. With the help of DOLE and local government units, Coca-Cola aims to reach more OFWs who are interested in starting their own business through Balik Pinas.    For referrals and more details, contact the Coca-Cola contact center at (02)-8813-COKE (2653). Spread the word to be one with the Company in helping our kababayan.

The Mystery on 17th Street by Annie Gorra | Kagay-anon’s novel now part of digital libraries in US, Canada

April 18, 2021

The Mystery on 17th Street, a local book set in Cagayan de Oro and written by a Kagay-anon is now part of the digital catalogue of the public library of the City of New Westminster in British Columbia. The book written by Annie Gorra, a Kagay-anon who resides in British Columbia, Canada, is set on 17th Street Nazareth and tells the story of families living on the street as seen through the eyes of a young boy named Agustin. He recalls with nostalgia the life he lived there with his mother and father, his two friends and his neighbours, one of whom was an old irascible woman they suspected was a witch.  They climbed trees, swam in rivers and learned life lessons including justice when Agustin’s father stood up to the military to save the life of a young mother. In presenting the book for consideration to the New Westminster Public Library, Gorra said that the book will most likely be strange to most Canadians, but reading about strange things is part of growing up and learning.  It opens a window to learn about a culture and how people (children and adults) live their lives in other places of the world.  “I hope it will find space in the New West Public Library Catalogue,” Gorra said. After being reviewed, it was added to the library’s digital catalogue. Alicia Dobbs of the New Westminster Public Library said in a statement: “We are happy to include books from local authors that are relatively new, that fill a gap in our collection, and/or may be of interest to our community. After reading a bit of it I do think that the slower pace, poetic style, and themes of nostalgia and social commentary will make it most appealing to adult readers who enjoy memoir and autobiographical fiction, though perhaps some more sophisticated young readers who are looking for something out of the ordinary will find it interesting!” The Mystery on 17th Street is also part of the digital catalogue of the Kalamazoo Public Library in Michigan, USA. The book is published by Anvil Publishing Inc in Mandaluyong City, Philippines. It was a finalist in the Gintong Aklat Awards in 2018.

The Live Or Die (LOD) Unit of the Mindanao Guerrillas

April 8, 2021

In time for the celebration of Araw ng Kagitingan, I would like to honor a group of patriots whose small but dangerous organization was credited to have contributed materially to the eventual defeat of  the enemy during World War II. The herioc story of these young men and women must be told. "That the organization was so effective in causing damage to the enemy is evidenced by the fact that, about 20 percent of the total membership were executed by the Japanese, " Col. Wendell Fertig,  Commanding Officer, 10th Military District, United States Forces in the Philippines ( USFIP ). Col. Fertig was not talking about the 36,000 strong guerrilla combatants in Mindanao under his command but rather to a  small propaganda, intelligence and sabotage unit with a recognized strength of 74 members in Manila under his command.  Members of this group regularly took clandestine trips to Mindanao to the headquarters of the 10th Military District highly valuable intelligence materials like information on the location of American POW concentration camps, strength of Japanese garrisons, number of planes in Japanese airfields, troops movement as well as movements of Japanese ships, gun placement and the like. On their return trip to Manila, contraband cargoes of their two-masted inter-island bancas included demolition materials like hand grenades, blasting caps, plastic and incendiary time bombs, radio transmitters for distribution to select guerrilla groups in Luzon, medicines, money and propaganda materials like chocolates candy and cigarettes with I Shall Return markings, and magazines such as Readers Digest, Life, Victory, Look and Library. Aside from propaganda and information gathering, their operation also includes sabotage, liquidation of spies and collaborators. At one time an order was received to eliminate Japanese puppet Pres. Laurel, Gen. Francisco and General Kuruda of the Japanese Imperial Army. Due to the high risks inherent in the type of operations undertaken by the unit, 19 of their 93 members were executed by the Japanese. Several others were captured and tortured but miraculously released including 5 young women. Only 3 out 9 original members of the core group survived.  LOD Founders pay the price Among those executed by the Japanese was the founding leader Capt. Jose O. Flores, who was only 25 years old at the time of his execution. His 21 year old brother and two cousins were also executed. Fortunately, his two other brothers who were also members of his organization survived the war. Capt. Jose O. Flores, a 24 year old former officer of the Philippine Scouts from the municipality of Oroquieta, Misamis Occidental, was the organizer of Live or Die, popularly known in the underground movement as LOD. Their group specialized in information gathering, propaganda, sabotage and assassination.  "The members have unanimously approved of calling the organization LOD because it was something suicidal, something so sensitive that a destructive explosion was fearlessly being hinted anytime. In a more simple way, it was literally "Live or Die," reads the Report on LOD History submitted to Fertig by Capt.Julian L. Alvarez . Capt. Flores was a Bataan Death March survivor. When he was released from Capas concentration camp he wasted no time in organizing a Sabotage and Espionage underground group. On Dec 1, 1942, inspired by the promise of Gen MacArthur to return and provoked by the cruelty of the Japanese regime, Capt. Flores started organizing the Live or Die ( LOD ) while still recuperating from an illness he got in concentration camp. The core group was composed of close friends and relatives of Capt. Jose Flores . He was the Commanding Officer and also the head of Intelligence Detachment. His brother, 1st Lt Teodorico was the executive officer. The Sabotage Detachment was commanded by his cousin, Capt. Pedro Enerio with 1Lt Antonio Rivera as executive officer. Capt. Maximo Blas, a reserve officer before the war whose wife was a town mate of Capt. Flores, was the Commanding Officer of Propaganda Detachment. The EO was 1Lt Pulturico Tabanao. All these leaders were later executed by the Japanese. In Sept. 10, 1943, 1Lts Ricardo and Guillermo Flores, brothers of Capt. Flores were released from Capas concentration camp. 1Lt Ricardo Flores took over command of Intelligence Detachment from his older brother Jose. 2lt Guillermo Flores  and their cousin 2lt. Roberto Velasquez who were assigned to the Courier Detachment. All were similarly executed  by the Japanese. The LOD was composed of  unsurrendered soldiers who escaped from Bataan and those who were released from Japanese concentration camp at Capas, Tarlac. There were also women recruits, young but brave ànd courageous. The work of LOD Sabotage Detachment delivered the most devastating blows on the enemy in the history of the guerrilla.  The targeted facilities for demolitions were oil, ammunition dump and other military facilities.  For a starter, the tunnel in San Juan, Manila, that was used as an ammunition dump was completely destroyed  but the ammunition failed to detonate. Not long after,  their success rate was increasing from 75 to 100% in terms of damage to the enemy installations and war logistical resources, such as  the oil depot at the Manila Port Area that burned and took the whole day and night to put out with 75% of the facility destroyed. They also sabotaged a Japanese oil tanker whose blast so damaged a nearby destroyer that both sank as a result. The sabotage unit's  biggest sabotage  was the complete destruction of the former  Navy Yard in Cavite which so alarmed Caviteños who thought they were being bombed by the liberating US forces. It was considered by the U.S. and the Guerrilla Forces as the biggest Sabotage in Guerrilla History.  Their intelligence reports were accurate, reliable and of great value and were forward to Gen. Douglas MacArthur in Australia by Col. Fertig. Through their Propaganda Detachment, they were successful in countering Japanese propaganda. Leaflets containing messages from President Manuel L. Quezon were also distributed along with the aforementioned "I Shall Return" marked collaterals and American magazines and other reading materials. Col. Bernard Anderson, CO of Anderson Guerrilla in Northern Luzon who often coordinated with LOD had nothing high praises to this group of young men and women.  "It was my opinion that the LOD unit  that operated in Luzon  was a unit of 15 to 20 very high caliber individuals." Col Anderson testified in an signed affidavit issued after the war.    To be continued. Source: World War 2 Declassified Documents, National Archives and Records Administration ( NARA )


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